# Sage 3.4 Release Tour

Sage 3.4 was released on March 11, 2009. For the official, comprehensive release note, please refer to sage-3.4.txt. A nicely formatted version of this release tour can be found here. The following points are some of the foci of this release:

• Merging of Jon Hanke's quadratic forms code
• Sphinxifying the Sage documentation and move its content to the main Sage development repository

All tickets in the 3.4 milestone can be found on the trac server. Here's a summary of features in this release, categorized under various headings.

## Algebra

• Rewrite the quaternion algebra module (Jonathan Bober, William Stein, Gonzalo Tornaria, John Voight, Michael Abshoff) -- The quaternion algebra module is completely rewritten to enhance its performance. Note that a number of functions have been removed in the rewritten version.

## Graph Theory

• Testing for graph isomorphism (Robert L. Miller) -- Enhanced performance of the graph isomorphism test is_isomorphic(). The improved performance can be up to 3x faster than previously.

## Graphics

• Arrowheads in multi-edge digraphs (Emily Kirkman) -- This feature has been in Sage even before this release. However, in version 3.4, Emily worked on enhancing the visualization of multi-edge digraphs. In a multi-edge digraph, the arrowheads pointing to a vertex are now clearly displayed. Here's a plot of a multi-edge digraph, produced using the following code:

```sage: S = SupersingularModule(389)
sage: D = DiGraph(S.hecke_matrix(2))
sage: D.plot(vertex_size=50).show(figsize=10)```

## Linear Algebra

• Optimize transpose and antitranspose for dense matrices (Rob Beezer, Yann Laigle-Chapuy) -- A rewrite of sections of the method transpose() in the class sage.matrix.matrix_dense.Matrix_dense, resulting in an improvement of up to 5x, depending on the computer architecture. For a system with architecture

```CPU: Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo CPU T5450  @ 1.66GHz
RAM: 2066004 KB
Linux kernel: 2.6.24-23```
one would obtain the following timing and memory statistics for a 3000x3000 identity matrix:
```# BEFORE
sage: m=identity_matrix(3000)
sage: time m2=m.transpose(); m3=m.antitranspose()
CPU times: user 14.13 s, sys: 1.11 s, total: 15.44 s
Wall time: 15.44 s
sage: get_memory_usage()
1254.28125

# AFTER
sage: m=identity_matrix(3000)
sage: time m2=m.transpose(); m3=m.antitranspose()
CPU times: user 2.92 s, sys: 0.46 s, total: 3.38 s
Wall time: 3.38 s
sage: get_memory_usage()
835.6171875```
Furthermore, on KUbuntu 8.10 with architecture
```CPU: Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo CPU E8500 @ 3.16GHz
RAM: 8 GB```
for a 5000x5000 identity matrix, the previous time was 11.94s and the new improved time would be about 2.46s.
• Optimize transpose for integer and rational dense matrices (Yann Laigle-Chapuy) -- New methods transpose() and antitranspose() for the classes sage.matrix.matrix_integer_dense.Matrix_integer_dense and sage.matrix.matrix_rational_dense.Matrix_rational_dense. The new method transpose() returns the transpose of an integer (respectively rational) dense matrix without changing the original matrix itself. In addition, the new method antitranspose() returns the antitranspose of an integer (respectively rational) matrix, leaving the original matrix unchanged.

## Packages

• Update the libgcrypt spkg to libgcrypt-1.4.3.p0.spkg (Michael Abshoff) -- Originally based on Gnu Privacy Guard (GnuPG), libgcrypt is a general purpose library of cryptographic primitives. As such, it does not provide an implementation of any cryptographic protocols, but rather serves as a collection of cryptographic building blocks.

• Update the Python spkg to python-2.5.2.p9.spkg (Michael Abshoff) -- Python is a general purpose, object oriented programming language. Together with various other open source components, Python serves as a fundamental tool that unify the components of Sage under a common interface.

• Upgrade MPFR to version 2.4.1 upstream release (Michael Abshoff) -- Version 2.4.1 of MPFR fixes critical security vulnerabilities in mpfr_snprintf() and mpfr_vsnprintf(), in particular, buffer overflow or off-by-one vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities have been reported in previous versions of MPFR, and they can be exploited to compromise an application that uses the MPFR library. Users are advised to upgrade to the new MPFR spkg mpfr-2.4.1.spkg. A Secunia security advisory can be found here and a SecurityFocus security advisory is also available.

• Upgrade PyCrypto to version 2.0.1 upstream release (Michael Abshoff) -- Version 2.0.1 fixes a buffer overflow vulnerability in the hash functions SHA256 and RIPEMD, which previously failed to adequately verify user-supplied input. The affected module is ARC2, an implementation of the RC2 block cipher. A successful exploit may allow an attacker to execute arbitrary code in the context of applications that uses the previously vulnerable ARC2 module. Furthermore, a failed attempt may lead to a denial-of-service attack. Users are advised to upgrade to the new PyCrypto spkg pycrypto-2.0.1.p3.spkg. A SecurityFocus security advisory can be found here.